MINDBRAIN LINK
G. S.Sarti
ABRAP – Associação Brasileira de Parapsicologia
1^{st} INTERNATIONAL AND BRAZILIAN PARAPSYCHOLOGY CONFERENCE
RECIFE  1997  BRAZIL
Abstract
In the first place, this work presents a
diference between syntactic information and semantic information. In
isolated mental processes, the total quantity of information was considered to
be a constant, called a link. Through the behavior of semantic information
it is inferred that the neuromotor phenomenon, altering the balance of nature,
is syntactically reversible. Psicons were used to form the basis of the
thesis while the link was extended to psychokinesis. (PKMB)
1 . INTRODUCTION
A process that still remains unsolved from the
theoretical point of view is what relates mind to matter or, more specifically,
mind to brain. If, on the one hand, neurologists and physicists solely
describe the processes taking place in the nervous system or the physical world,
on the other, psychologists only attempt to understand the manifestations of the
mind.
The gray area, the interfaces and intersections
between the above mentioned sciences are to be found in the heart of
parapsychology.
The most basic phenomenon,
the link between mind and brain, becomes in this sense, an integral part of
the paranormal and, I believe, can be analyzed as the starting pont for the
study of other paranormal manifestations such as psychokinesis which has a
very obvious connection with the link.
We will consider that the
total quantity of information H_{tot} in an isolate process, i.e.,
one that does not exchange energy with the exterior, be it through matter or
through a field, remains constant in time, that is H*_{tot} = 0
(1). Generally we can define for a given instant, that H_{tot}
is the sum of syntactic H_{i}, semantic H_{e}, and esthetic
H_{s} type information: (2):
H_{i} + H_{e}
+ H_{s} = H_{tot}
In this study we will consider, in accordance with the
theories of the significant and the signification (3), that esthetic
information is a nonlinear function of the other types of information.
Therefore we can reduce the previous equation to
2. NEURONAL PROCESSES
HIGHLY SIMPLIFIED
Nervous impulses are either
afferent or efferent. In the former, random distal stimuli, coming from
the outside, are directed towards the brain by the physical activity of the neuro
transmitters. They must then be stored, still in randon state, in the form
of circulating memory. At which point a psychic organizing principle, a
link, gives meaning to the neuronal vibration, generating a more longterm,
organized memory. This same link will produce efferent motor activity,
coming from the psyche, lowering entropy.
In this process the balance of
the exterior word is altered by an act that has been directed by the brain
which, in this instant, would have already acquired a configuration of less
probability. It is as if a central mindbrain connection had been
established, one made up of information rather than of energy, as per Horta
Santos (4).
In 1877, Boltzmann defines
entropy, which had previously been deduced by Clausius, from the
thermodynamic point of view, that is as being proportional to the
probability P of the state of a system of particles:
Nearly 60 years later,
Shannon and Wiener (5) respectively dedicated to the study of information
and communication, observed that the quantity of information H, according to
the theory of measurements, could be practically defined as the inverse of
entropy. Thus, a measurement being made in the interval (a, b), within
an interval (0, 1) containing the former, the probability P of the measurement is:
measurement (a, b)
P =
measurement (0, 1)
In the above observation, the
quantity of information H was practically defined as:
H =  in P
Extending the definition to
the density of probability functions, or the f distribution functions,
instead of simples measurements we see that, as certain distribution will
always be normalized, then:
Thus Neumann reasonably
considered that in this case of the distributions,
Finally, it is interesting
to see that while a change in entropy results in an isolated system tending
towards a chaotic state of equilibrium, the supposed physical variation, of
information following the inverse of the principle of growth, reduced itself
over time in the same manner. However, here we are dealing with
material, physical or energetic systems. Nonsyntactic systems, as we
shall see, tend to subvert these principles, shedding light on the obscure
mindbrain enigma.
Previously we posited that
semantic information He was related to mental processes. A question
remains, however. What does one understand by the mind?
Without foolishly trying to
materialize the mind, we call the quantum of the semantic particle a (6)
psicon so that the associated wave, because of the duality particle/wave, is
ψ_{P} where ψ_{P} is the well known function of the plane
quantum wave, without, however, any interference from material particles:
ψ_{P} = e ^{i (kx
}^{ωt)}
This function, where k, wave number, nonindeterminately, is related to the length of the wave and where
ω, also
nonindeterminately, is related to the frequency of the wave, is commutative
when faced with the operator of uncertainty:
This means that Heisenberg's
principle of uncertainty of no longer valid when the result of commutation
produces an imaginary velocity:
with
Ћ being Dirac's
constant, v the velocity, and m the mass related to ψ_{P}.
Thus as m is real, and without damaging the equation for relativistic
mass, one arrives at the imaginary superluminous velocity:
We have the same concept as
Popper (7) for whom the destruction of uncertainty results from the
knowledge of theory, that is from semantic information. The
possibility of absolute knowledge of two noncommutative quantities in the
physics of the world presupposes that k and
ω respectively related
to the amount of movement and the amount of energy, are perfectly
determinable, in such a way that
signifying that the psicon
is an imaginary vacuum, that is, the total P_{P} probability
As the exact probability is
this makes ( 8 ) the chain
of probability for noninteractive particles:
meaning a cluster of
particles with (superluminous) velocity.
5. SEMANTIC INFORMATION H_{e}
In possession of a physical
mathematical description of purely mental processes and taking these
isolated processes to be related to semantic information He one finds, as
foreseen, that:
where P_{P} is
the probability of a given psiconic state. Taking the definition of
psiconic waves in an interval x one will get for n particles
The temporal variation of
This equation will always be
negative because the numeric term is always positive, expressed in the number of psiconic particles per interval of time.
6. HORTA SANTOS'S INFORMATIONAL HYPOTHESIS FOR THE BENDING OF METALS BY PSYCHOKINESIS (PKMB)
One of the most important,
recent paranormal phenomenon is the bending of metals through psychokineis.
It would appear to be a phenomenon based on energy as pieces of hard metal
are bent, possibly by using energy. However, there are cases in which
the pieces of metal are very thick and it would only be possible to bend by
using machines capable of applying inhuman force. As sometimes there
is a softening of the metal just a small effort can make it bend, or it can
even bend without the use of any force, that is, by itself. This
nonchemical softening of various sections of the piece, led Dr. Horta
Santos to suggest (9) that the bending of metals did not take place
through the use of energy, but rather through a process using information
and probabilities.
His hypothesis briefly
described is as follows. As we know, metals, when formed by a net work
of crystals, give off electrons from the outer wave bands of energy
producing an ionic network and a cloud of free electrons which are
responsible for the metallic union. These electrons, in the form of
gas, move with a certain amount of ease through the ionic network, and with
very low probability, might become incorporated into the incomplete paths,
as if there had been a return to an earlier state but with a significant
increase in information. The completion of the outer layers of the
atoms during this return, would result in a lack of metallic cohesion in
some parts of the piece of metal, making it plastic. In this case, a
small effort, or even the internal tensions resulting from the structure's
modification, would easily bend the piece owing to the improbable reduction
in its cohesiveness.
To verify the validity of
Horta Santos's hypothesis, he, together with a team of parapsychologists
from ABRAP and paranormal Antonio Alves Ferreira adopted the following
experimental procedure, drawn out below
If, after placing the above
circuit under the influence of the paranormal, a return of the electrons
forming valance bands was to occur together with the softening of the piece,
the electrical resistance would increase causing a voltage drop. The
test failed because the paranormal did not manage to set off the process.
Or in the language that we are using, the link between the paranormal's mind
and the metallic structure was not established. However, Dr. Horta
Santos's hypothesis has the great value of being testable experimentally and
can consequently validate the theory that we are presenting, given that, if,
as already seen, H* e is negative, then H* i is positive:
that is, the variation of
syntactic information in time will be positive if the link is established.
7. BEHAVIOR OF THE
SYNTACTIC DISTRIBUTIONS DURING THE LINK
Adopting Von Neumann's
concept of information, for distribution
ƒ of elementary
particles, one finds that (10):
Let us say, for the purpose
of unity, that Hi =
∫ ƒ1n ƒd^{3} v
which gives the volume density of the syntactic information, when no spatial
gradients exist to influence the distribution of the particles.
Generally (Boltzmann), in
the case of
type particles, differentiating the ƒ
distribution given previously, in relation to
time:
in which the term on the
right, (unopened), is the term of collision between the particles and "a"
represents the acceleration coming from external forces.
At this point, I would like
to stress that the macromolecular neuronic structures, principally the
pyramidal, basal and cerebellar ones, must always reflect some micro
distribution of elementary particles, of the generic type
, of the type that we are dealing with (for
example: electrons). This being the case, the neuronal configurations
in the brain, basically digitized, are the result of microphysical
distributions, ultimately responsible for the motor activity efferent to the
brain.
Supposing that there are no
external forces, or spatial gradients, the unopened term of the collision,
in number per interval of time, that is, the flow, will be (10)
where: 
ƒ = 
distribution of speeds for particles
before
collision. 
ƒ_{1} = 
distribution of speeds for particles β (all the others) before
collision. 
ƒ^{'} = 
distribution of speeds for particles
after the
collision. 
ƒ^{'}_{1} = 
distribution of speeds for particles β after the collision, 
all of them with volume
d^{3} x the temporal evolution
ƒ^{*}
of the system being equal to the first determinante:
ƒ^{*
= }ƒ ^{' }
ƒ ^{'}_{1} 
ƒ ƒ_{1}
The integer of the
matrix determinant is never what is conjectured given that H* is always
negative. However, in terms of our supposition, the said integer
reverts:
ƒ^{*
= }ƒ
ƒ_{1}
 ƒ ^{' }ƒ ^{'}_{1}
8. ARGUEMENT
This
inversion of terms is considered possible because the equations for the
machanics are reversible, although, from the point of view of the
grouping, there must be very little probability that can occur in the
mind, the reversible systemic process must nearly always occur under
the organizational regimen of the psyche.
A second
observation is necessary. In the Boltzmann demonstration, it is
assumed that there is no physical correlation between particles
α and β
with differentiated velocities in a same volume of space and time.
This signifies, in technical terms, the possibility of molecular chaos,
which in reality does not happen, as there is always a dynamic
correlation between the possibilities
and
Adopting
this correlation the term in ƒ^{*}
can be inverted, even in situations with no equilibrium, as we did,
although the collision equation takes on another aspect, which at the
moment is irrelevant.
The
third point (11) is, that given a state of entropic or informational
equilibrium H* = 0, another completely different spatial configuration
can occur, in the same occupied volume of space of the phase
as seen in the following
diagram, altering the quantity of syntactic information.
This
phenomenon of syntactic equilibrium, which we are not adopting here,
clearly results in the informational process being reversed without
entropy being altered.
Finally,
we find that in (6), (12) and (13), independent of the nature of the masses
in question, if one particle moves with velocity v in relation to a
fixed point of reference which in turn has a velocity IuI in
relation to a nonfixed point os reference, then the relationship
between the intervals of time measured between two same events that
occur in the particle at the two points of reference will be:
Which
are obtained from the temporal derivation of Lorentz's transformation
equation
Were γ is
the relativity factor
This
being so, if uv > 1 then some interval of time passes in relation to the
other, i.e. it will be negative. This, when occurring with psicons,
in the case of the link that we are referring to, will result in an
increase in information and a violation of Boltzmann's equation, that is
ƒ^{* }< 0
→ H*_{i} > 0 in some point of
reference. As we consider that ∆t in the semantic point of
reference is positive, a return to more informed states would occur with
the syntactic point of reference.
9.
CONCLUSION
In
the equations concerning syntactic information, the action of external
forces was always excluded, which signifies an isolated system. More over, we substituted said action, which could create information
somewhere in the phase's space, by a link with the mind, that is, with
another type of information, in this case called semantic, that gives
meaning to the internal neuronal activity of the brain. In reality
we have concentrated only on the efferent motor activity branch of the
CNS, which is what concerns us in the case of psychokinesis, where there
is no use of force detectable.
In order
to explain this approach, a mental particlewave, the psicon, was
created, carrier, if we can call it that, of semantic information.
We hope
that in the light of this thesis, some practical benefit can be obtained
in the future, hoping, in the global context, to improve that conditions
for life in societies, communities and of the species in general.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
1. 
G. S. Sarti: "Tópicos Avançados em Parapsicologia" EGUSA,
1978. 
2. 
Cahiers de Royaumont: "O Conceito
de Informação na Ciência Contemporânea" Paz e Terra, 1970. 
3. 
R. Barthes: "Elementos de Semiologia" Editora
Cultrix, 1971. 
4. 
J.J. Horta Santos: "Tempo Quântico e o Domínio Informacional"
ABRAP, 1982. 
5. 
N. Wiener: "Cibernética" Polígono, 1970. 
6. 
G. S. Sarti: "Psicons  "Do Real Ao Imaginário" ABRAP,
1982. 
7. 
K. Popper: "A Lógica da Pesquisa Científica" Editora
Cultrix, 1975. 
8. 
J. L. Powell and B. Craseman: "Quantum Mechanics" Addison
Wesley, 1965. 
9. 
J.J. Horta Santos: "Conexão Informacional  Quântica"
ABRAP, 1995. 
10. 
B. S. Tanenbaum: "Plasma Physics" Mc GrawHill, 1967. 
11. 
G. Schmidt: "Physics of High Temperature Plasmas" Academic
Press, 1966. 
12. 
L. Landau: "Theorie du Champ" Editions MIR, 1966. 
13. 
G. Feinberg: "Possibility of FasterthanLight Particles"
Phys. Rev 159(5) 1089, 1967. 
