Parapsicologia RJ - Lucas Raphael Alfaia Mutti



Lucas Raphael Alfaia Mutti

Graduation Year 2007

Submitted to the evaluation committee of Our Lady of Mercy School for partial completion of the requirements for the title of:

High School Diploma


     Approved by the Evaluation Committee

Mr.Marcelo Camera M.M – Major Advisor

Msgr. André Sampaio Ph.D– Evaluation Committee

Dr. Ricardo Barthem Ph.D– Evaluation Committee



Throughout my senior year a valuable work was done to complete this thesis.  All this work would never be concluded without the support from the lady who taught and inspired me with her suggestions and patience - my grandmother, Mrs. Maria Helena Duque Alfaia.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to my academic advisor, Mr. Marcelo Camera Fernandes Pinto.  His constant guidance and expertise have made my school experience meaningful and fulfilling.  Although this topic is new and little explored in science, he showed me that a serious approach to the theme should be accomplished through focused research and the perseverance to expand limits and overcome difficulties.

These acknowledgments would be incomplete without thanking those who made long term commitments to my success and set me on the right course: my parents and friends.  Without their encouragement this thesis would not have been accomplished.

There are still some other people who helped me to develop his research: Mr. Geraldo Sarti from the Associação Brasileira de Parapsicologia, Ms. Mônica Merchak (Art Department), Mr. Almir Costa (Maintenance), Dr. Emil Medeiros (Physics Department), Ms. Elizabeth Freire and Mr. Dennys Zsolt (Mathematics Department), Mr. John Majka (English Department). Thanks a lot.


This thesis is a scientific, qualitative and correlational research based on the moving phenomena of the Ouija Board––a bridge to the spiritual world also known as the “telegraph of the dead”––and how studies in psychology (self-delusion and autosuggestion) and physics (poltergeist and Model of Pragmatic Information) are related to the motion of the palette.

The poltergeist phenomena occur due to fluctuations in the electromagnetic field, explained by the zero-point energy (also interpreted as spiritual energy) and by geomagnetic perturbations.  Also, it is taken into account the studies in the field of quantum mechanics and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox solutions’, which introduces the Model of Pragmatic Information, mathematically explained by the psiconic theory.

In the last study, the Easterner concept of spiritual energy is used to inquire the interference of an observer in a physical system.

The review of literature information was gathered mainly from scientific magazines, books and television interviews.  An analysis of data was made with one interview to clarify the psiconic theory.

Table of Contents


Abstract …………………………………………………………………………p.ii

Introduction…………………………………………………………………….. p.01

Review of Literature….......…………………………………………………...  p.06

► Section I - Ouija, The Telegraph of The Dead..........................       p.06

            Section I.i  – Franz Mesmer X William Carpenter..............     p.11

► Section II – Flaws of the Ideomotor Effect...............................       p.14

► Section III – Poltergeist, The Noisy Ghost...............................       p.18

            Section III.i - The Hutchison Effect………………………….   p.27                      

► Section IV – Modern Physics Behind the Ocult……………….    p.30

► Section V – Observer Participancy……………………………... p.39

Methodology…………………………………………………………………  p.46

Analysis of Data………………………………………………………………p.47

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… p.51

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………  p.53

Appendix A……………………………………………………………………p.56

Appendix B…………………………………………………………………….p.57

Appendix C…………………………………………………………………….p.58

Appendix D…………………………………………………………………….p.62


Chapter I


                        “Do irreal, conduze-me ao real!  Das trevas, conduze-me à luz!

                         Da morte, conduze-me à imortalidade!”

                                                           (Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad[1]- Capra,1983)

Since mankind inhabited planet Earth, questions were made regarding the unknown and almost everything that could not be explained was attributed to God’s will.  As mankind’s reasoning skills developed, some questions were answered but some were not.  From all the civilizations that ever existed, the one that has constantly been attributed almost all the work done scientific fields such as physics; anatomy, zoology, mathematics and especially music are the Greek.  These first scientists were called natural philosophers.

Although future physicists questioned the past natural philosophers, their laws remained untouched until Renaissance.  With the Renaissance period, physics developed and names such as Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543), Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) and Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727) were responsible for the impulse they gave to the growth of physics.

While talking about physics in the 17th century, it is very important to remember that the period was totally influenced by the Catholic Church; in other words, anyone opposed to it would find death as its way to end any protest.  An interesting fact about the entire Renaissance was that the scientists mentioned above believed in God and as they made their discoveries they represented a threat to the Catholic Chuch. Among them, Galileu Galilei was the first one to question and to prove that the Aristotelian laws of motion were wrong. Such situation occurred in the Pisa Tower, Italy when Galileo Galilei threw two objects of different masses from the top of the tower. According to the Aristotelian laws of motion, the heavier object would have to fall first, and not at the same time as it was observed.

Among several contradictions, the most audacious, was saying that planet Earth was not the center of the universe, geocentric theory, conclusion made by Aristotle and by Claudius Ptolomeu (90 AD–168 AD) while Galileo Galilei supported the heliocentric theory proved by Nicolaus Copernicus.  As he contradicted, he was arrested and almost murdered by the Roman Inquisition[2].  Going against the geocentric theory was the same as going against the Bible, Js 10: 6-9[3] and in Js 10: 13-15[4].

Johannes Kepler, one extremely Catholic astronomer, believed that studying the properties of the universe was a religious duty. While studying the orbits of the planets, Kepler thought that it would be a perfect circle, geometric beauty, but he discovered it was an ellipse, reflecting in his 1st Law of Planetary Motion (Hawking, 2005).

Of all of the scientists above, the most famous was Sir Isaac Newton who developed a powerful tool to prove his mathematical hypothesis with the intention of solving complex physics problems: a specific branch of mathematics, more specifically, the differential and integral calculus.

Since Renaissance, spiritualism and science were two extremely close fields but with the scientific development, mankind answered with science almost everything, which seemed to be spiritual.  It was believed, for example, that when someone sneezed, his/her soul was trying to escape of the body, but thanks to biology this statement is false[5].  One of the questions, which are often asked, regards spiritual games.  Most people have already heard about the Ouija Board or perhaps some other game whose objective is to contact the spiritual world.  Although myths were formed since the beginning of the practice of the game, physicists never proposed a truly scientific explanation for the motion of the palette used to connect with the dead. While studying the nature of paranormal effects, an association was established between the Ouija and paranormal effects such as poltergeist.

In order to limit the subject of this inquiry, the author has directed his studies to a scientific, qualitative and correlational analysis on the practice of the game, proposing a relationship between two studies done in psychology and two in physics, which were given to explain how the observer interacts with matter when playing Ouija.

The opening section of this research is about the history behind the Ouija Board and the Fox Sisters, focusing on the philosophical suggestions given by Franz Mesmer and William Carpenter.

The second section analyzes the flaws of the ideomotor effect, explanation proposed by William Carpenter, and introduces all the four studies given to explain the Ouija.  A remarkable point in this section is the analysis, which is made regarding the Freudian psychoanalytic theory of the subconscious.

The third and fourth sections analyze more advanced studies in physics such as the zero-point energy – the possible energy behind the motion of objects and an explanation to apparition – and the geomagnetic perturbations and how it leads to poltergeist, as in Stonehenge, county of Wiltshire, England.  The fourth section is about the last study, related to physics – telepathy and psycho kinesis – and how they answer the Ouija by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox, paradox present in quantum mechanics.

The last section of this research goes back to the previous section–Modern Physics Behind the Occult–using the psiconic theory, developed from the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox as a possible solution. The major intention of this section is to prove by one experience done Cornell University that the observer interferes in the microscopical system. Applying the knowledge of observer participancy, the concept of spiritual energy, is mentioned.

Chapter II

Review of Literature

Section I. Ouija, The Telegraph of The Dead.

“A Ouija Board is a medium through which messages are supposedly communicated by the dead to or through the players of  séance[6].

Ouija boards are also known as "witch boards" or "talking  boards."

The word "ouija" is actually a combination of two words, the French word "oui" and the German word "ja." Both words mean, "yes"  in English.”



Spiritualists affirm that the board is a means for making direct contact with the dead and that the messages, which are spelled out, are from the dead.

Skeptics certify that the messages are suggestions from the unconscious mind or the result of muscular tension and unconscious direction of the hand.

While studying the Ouija Board chronology, historians have different opinions in relation to when it was first played.  In fact, many believe that the boards date back as far as 540 B.C.  Actually, the original Ouija boards are very young when compared to the given age.  Although similar devices may have existed, actual Ouija boards did not come along until much later on.

In 1848 in Hydesville, New York (Figure 1), two sisters, Kate and Margareth Fox (Figure 2) made contact with a spirit.  From that day on the Ouija Board was known as a way of communicating with the dead (A. Braude 1989).

Figure 1 – The Fox Sisters house in Hydesville, New York. (

Figure 2 – The Fox Sisters, Kate and Margareth Fox. (

The sessions, organized by a medium[7], were held in a room with a circular table because they believed that if there were any corner they would easily lose the connection with the spirit.  As the session had started, the palette, which is used to select the letter in the board, moved involuntary with just a no pressure touch done by the participants, as history states. This was firstly explained by Franz Anton Mesmer[8] with his animal magnetism,[9] later contested by William Benjamin Carpenter[10] who explained that electromagnetism was not related at all with the movement of the palette, in other words there is no spirit in the game and what really makes the palette to move are just involuntary movements, known as ideomotor effect.

Around 1851 the board was later developed and the medium added all the letters of the alphabet, the numbers range from one to zero or from zero to nine, a goodbye at the bottom of the board and finally a yes or no at the corner (Figure 3).  The board structure was never changed since the mentioned year until the days of today.

With the tremendous success of the board, the Kennard Novelty Company, started to produce the solid wood board and sell it for only U$ 1.50 (one dollar and fifty cents). The idea of selling the board was from Charles Kennard and his partner Elijah Bond.  Charles Kennard was awarded the patent on February 10, 1891 calling the new creation "Ouija" because he claimed that the board told him that Ouija in Egyptian meant "Good Luck."  Although Ouija does not mean “Good Luck” in Egyptian, the name was never questioned.  Although the board brought fame to Charles Kennard he needed to sell his company because of financial problems and by coincidence William Fuld, one of the varnishers of the enterprise, made him the highest bid, buying the copyright and spreading the board all over the country.

Figure 3 - The Ouija Board.


His name was then printed on every Ouija Board made for over 100 years until the Parker Brothers took it off in the late 1990s.  William Fuld and his brother Isaac Fuld changed the Kennard Novelty Company to Isaac Fuld & Brother, and finally to the Ouija Novelty Company and continued selling boards at much higher numbers.  Shortly down the line, Isaac was fired so the company name was changed once again to the William Fuld Manufacturing Company.

Since William Fuld then owned all rights to the Ouija Board, he decided to reinvent its history.  He claimed that he invented the board himself. 
In the year of 1927, a tragic event would occur in Baltimore, more exactly on the Harford Street, where the William Fuld Manufacturing Company was located. William Fuld was on the roof of his factory to supervise the replacement of a flagpole.  It was then that he fell to his death. 
While being transported, a fractured rib pierced his heart and he died in the hospital.  Witnesses say it was just an accident but since the truth is rarely interesting, plenty of people were spreading rumors that it was suicide.  For spiritual scholars the valid hypothesis is that William Fuld was possessed by one of his Ouija Boards.

From 1927 to 1942 the William Fuld Manufacturing Company was ran by Catherine Fuld until the youngest brother, Hubert, became the president selling it to Parker Brothers, in 1966, who also bought the copyright.

Figure 4 - The Ouija Board Lineage. (

Section I.i – Franz Mesmer (Animal Magnetism) X

 William Benjamin Carpenter (Ideomotor Effect).

"O magnetismo preparou o caminho do Espiritismo, e os  rápidos progressos do Espiritismo se devem à vulgarização das idéias acerca do magnetismo.  Dos fenômenos magnéticos, do sonambulismo e do êxtase às manifestações espíritas, não há senão um passo; sua conexão é tal, que é, por assim dizer, impossível falar de um sem falar de outro"

                                                                (Allan Kardec "La Revue Spirite", 1858)[11]

Franz Anton Mesmer (Figure 6) was one of the first official scientists to establish a direct relationship between physiology and the Ouija Board in the year of 1784.  To make such assumption, Mesmer relied on Willian Maxel’s thesis “Magnetic Medicine” published in 1676, whose main point was to prove that the human body had a direct interaction with magnetism that could heal someone’s disease.

Animal magnetism evolved from an experience Mesmer had while studying the interaction between magnets and the human body.  For Mesmer, the bodies and the magnets shared common properties and the main reason was because of the fluids each one has inside.  According to the animal magnetism these properties could be transmitted to animated or un-animated objects.

According to the Allan Kardec (Figure 5), one of the most important systematizer of Spiritualism, spiritual phenomena could be only explained by the physics of magnetism. As once stated by him:

"O Espiritismo se liga ao magnetismo por laços íntimos.  São duas ciências solidárias entre si... os espíritos sempre preconizam o  magnetismo, quer como meio de cura, quer como causa primeira de uma porção de coisas". 

(Allan Kardec "La Revue Spirite" 1858[12])           

Figure 5. - Allan Kardec, the most important systematizer of Spiritualism.


The year of 1852 was crucial for the first concretized theory presented for an explanation for the Ouija Board, which was the ideomotor effect.  The English physiologist and naturalist William Benjamin Carpenter (Figure 6) affirmed that the Ouija Board could be explained just by unconscious impulses done by the ones involved in the session proposed it. As William Carpenter stated, the psychological phenomena that makes involuntary motions are the reasons attributed to the paranormal or supernatural forces.

In motor behavior, there are two parts of brain activity.  The first results in the motor activity, the second is the registration of that activity in the conscious mind.  William Benjamin Carpenter proposed the ideomotor effect as a third class of unconscious behavior, along with excitomotor (such as breathing and swallowing) and sensorimotor (reflex actions).

Figure 6 - From left to right: Franz Mesmer and William Carpenter.

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Section II. Flaws of the Ideomotor Effect

The term “ideomotor action”, given by William Carpenter, would become the explanation of paranormal effects behind the Ouija Board until now.  One field of science called biology, more specific neuroscience, could better explain Carpenter’s study.  According to Carpenter, ideomotor effect is a psychological phenomenon where someone makes unconscious movements.  As William James[13] once stated:

“Wherever a movement unhesitatingly and immediately follows upon the idea of it, we have ideomotor action.  We are then aware of  nothing between the conception and the execution.  All sorts of  neuromuscular responses come between, of course, but we know absolutely nothing of them. We think the act, and it is done; and that is all that introspection tells us of the matter.”

Supporting James’s explanation, the Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Oregon said that modern brain researchers have produced data and theory that help explain how quasi-independent modules, responsible for involuntary movements, in the brain can initiate motor movements without necessarily engaging the "executive module" that is responsible for our sense of self-awareness and volition.

 The Ouija Board is known as a shortcut from the conscious to the subconscious mind, thanks to the ideomotor effect.  The problem with Carpenter’s study refers to its consistency.  Involuntary movements last for a few seconds (Wagner, 2007).

During a n-person Ouija Board session, what will determine the final position of the palette is the position of each participant. Independent of the situation, Newtonian mechanics[14] explains that when several n-forces are applied over a body it will produce a resultant force.  Assuming no one will produce a voluntary force, the ideomotor effect can be applied.

But if Carpenter’s ideomotor effect is left aside, it does not mean it may be assumed that spirits are present in the Ouija.  For science, the presence of these spirits cannot explain the motion of the palette. Thanks to a technological and theoretical advance four new studies, two psychological and two physical, were proposed.  The first two psychological studies complete the ideomotor effect; they are self-delusion and autosuggestion. The third study is known about how the zero-point energy explains the poltergeist phenomena, which may be caused by either fluctuations in the electromagnetic field or by geomagnetic perturbations.  The last study is how the Ouija Board may be explained by solving the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox (The New York Times, 2007), better explained in section IV – Modern Physics Behind the Occult, by telepathy and psycho kinesis.

Self-delusion is where the belief of the participants drives them to subconsciously[15] control the movement of the palette.  A sort of not quite intended fraud.  This is very like autosuggestion except that one or more of the participants actually controls the movement of the palette, acting subconsciously.  They hear the question, they know what needs to be spelt out and their fingers subconsciously push or pull the palette in the direction of the required letter.

Autosuggestion is where the participants unconsciously[16] control the movement of the palette.  Something, possibly the combination of the random and minor spasming of the muscles of the participants, drives the palette in a random direction.  This random movement would lead to a random distribution of letters which would, for the most part, appear as gibberish.  However, despite all good intentions, there is likely to be some editing by the participants.  The participants begin to subconsciously guess ahead and the letters come out in a generally orderly fashion (Sarti, 1991).

While discussing the meaning of subconscious and unconscious it should be clearly stated that there is no interaction among the subconscious and unconscious theories proposed to answer the Ouija Board by Sigmund Freud’s[17] psychoanalytic theory[18].  According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious refers to that part of mental functioning of which subjects make themselves unaware.  For psychoanalysis, the unconscious does not include all of what is simply not conscious, not including for example motor skills, but only what is actively repressed from conscious thought, avoiding future confusions with the concepts proposed to answer the Ouija Board phenomena.




Basic Principles:

■ Subconscious control of the palette



Basic Principles:

■ Zero-Point Energy (also interpreted as spiritual energy), the energy behind the unknown motion

■ Geomagnetic perturbation, geological structure may lead to poltergeist and apparitions.


Basic Principles:

■ Unconscious control of the palette

■ Random distribution of letters

Model of Pragmatic Information

Basic Principles:

■ Theory of Information

■ Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Princple

■ Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox

        → Psiconic Theory

        → Telepathy

        → Psycho kinesis

Table 1 – Summary of the studies done with the Ouija Board.

(Created by the author)

 Section III. Poltergeist, The Noisy Ghost

Some people who have tried to use the Ouija Board confirm that strange things happen.  Assuming that no one at the Ouija Board session tried to apply voluntary forces, Carpenter’s ideomotor effect theory may be accepted to answer the motion of the palette.  But as stated in section II – Flaws of the Ideomotor Effect, it is impossible for someone to provide a sustainable and uninteruptive continuous force.

Spiritually speaking, one solution would surely exist for the so unpredictable movement of the palette: spirits are coordinating the movement behind the players.  These spirits would be labeled poltergeist, a term destined for spirits or ghosts that manifest themselves by moving and influencing inanimate objects.  Scientifically speaking poltergeist phenomena is a branch of study of parapsychology and physics.  Unfortunately some cases are fraudulent but scientists continue on their journey to find an explanation for what is really happening in a poltergeist environment (Roll, 2003).

Technically speaking, poltergeist’s name is Recurrent Spontaneous Psycho Kinesis (RSPK), which was given by J.B. Rhine, from the Psychology Lab of Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, widespread by the psychologist William George Roll[19]

In paranormal studies a new concept of energy was proposed, an energy that could not be explained by the principles of classical physics, this energy is named psi energy. Paranormal phenomena have as a principal agent the information, better explained in section IV – Modern Physics Behind the Occult. The paranormal phenomenon is divided into three phenomena, but for this research only two are used: the psi-gama (provokes telepathy) and the psi-kappa (provokes psycho kinesis and poltergeist) (Sarti, 1991).

One possible spiritualist explanation about poltergeist is that it originates after someone dies in a powerful rage at the time of death.  For spiritualists, in a place where there is too much pain the probability of a spiritual event occurring is extremely high because the energy deliberated by the spirit is extremely high.  For physics the energy behind the movement of household objects, furniture and even apparition, known as zero-point energy.

The zero-point energy, Nullpunktsenergie in German, was formulated by Albert Einstein and Otto Stern.  The concept of zero-point energy developed from an experiment whose objective was to demonstrate that at   -273º Celsius molecules stop moving.  The experiment proved that the hypothesis was wrong and molecules continued to move under this temperature.  Physically speaking, the zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may possess and it is the energy of the ground state of the system.  Culturally speaking, the zero-point energy is the same energy Easterner’s name as prajñā, ch’i or ki, vital energy or spiritual energy (Radmül, 2000), explained in section V – Observer Participancy.

Once interviewed by “The Journal of Parapshycology” in December 2001 the physicist Dr. Hal Puthoff, from the Stanford Research Institute, stated that an object may be freed from gravity/inertia if the RSPK agent affects the zero-point energy, a sea of random electromagnetic fluctuations that fills all of space.  The agent would not generate the energy for object-movements, but would cause the zero-point energy to cohere[20] and thereby loosen the hold of gravity[21]/inertia[22] that ordinarily keeps things in place.  Gravity is closely related to inertia, the effect that causes stationary objects to remain at rest and moving objects to remain in motion.

The zero-point energy of RSPK says that an object may move when its weight is reduced.  Object focusing, where the same object is repeatedly affected, may suggest that some reduction of weight persists so that the object is more likely to move again than others (objects must be equidistant from the agent to rule out the effect of proximity).

According to the zero-point energy, weight losses of RSPK objects result from the intermolecular forces that hold together the molecules of the electromagnetic field of the vacuum.  This leads to the further expectation that anomalous electromagnetic readings may be obtained near RSPK objects or areas.  During one investigation the parapsychologist William Joines detected an emission of 146 MHz in an RSPK area.

An indication of the presence of electromagnetism in RSPK is the symptom of complex partial seizure; in other words the habitant brains are subject to sudden electromagnetic discharges.  Also, RSPK is associated with geomagnetic perturbations (Gearhart and Persinger, 1986).

Near London, England, a group of researchers from the Birkbeck College, University of London, started an investigation in the Chacon House, a castle from the 17th century.  The castle is famous due to the occurrence of apparitions, sound effects and light emissions.  The same researchers with the intention of explaining what was going on inside the castle, brought with them a series of materials such as: magnetometers, night vision field glasses, motion detector, infrared sensors, Geiger counter[23] (Figure 7). These materials would report their measures to one computer whose database had as variables: temperature, light, sound, and motion.  According to the parapsychologist Dr. Dean Radin, the Director of the Cognitive Sciences Lab of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, what really caused the apparition was the granite over the ground and the granite in the structure of the building.  Also, according to Dr. Dean Radin another important agent was the water underground or even the radiation emitted by the granite.  For Dr. Dean Radin, the granite in important basically for two reasons:

1)     A natural radioactive compound;

2)     They emit high electromagnetic fields;

Regarding the third reason presented by Dr. Dean Radin, small movements in the construction may deform crystals and the granite producing electrical charges, which produce electrical fields.  Once combined with the radiation the electrical effect may be the reason for the apparition in almost all stone-like structure.

One last reason presented by Dr. Dean Radin was regarding psychology. As Dr. Dean Rodin suggested, at night, especially at 3:00 am, we are subjected to diferent emotional conditions, depending on the place we are.  An example is fear; also we are exposed to different hormonal and environmental conditions.  On a fearful night, adrenal glands accelerate adrenaline production leading to some kind of stress. 

Figure 7 – Top (Left to Right): Magnetometers, Night Vision Field glasses, and Motion Detector Bottom (Left to Right): Infrared Sensor and Geiger counter.

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Detector%20with%20LabPro%20(large).jpg , ,

Researchers as the neuroscientist Professor Michael Persinger’s from the Laurentian University in Canada speculate that changes in electronic equipment or geomagnetic fields, created by tectonic stresses in the Earth’s crust or solar activity, could stimulate the brain’s temporal lobes and produce many of the experiences associated with haunting.  Persinger suggested that magnetism causes bursts of electrical activity in the angular gyrus of the brain causing the sensation of spiritual existence.  Electrical stimulation of different parts of the brain has also caused people to hallucinate or have near-death experiences.  Coincidently the same results were found by the psychotherapist Stanislav Grof, from the ancient Czechoslovakia, in his book, Beyond the Brain: Birth, Death and Transcendence in Psychoterapy in 1985, while studying L.S.D[24] consumers.

The explanation given by Professor Persinger applies perfectly in Stonehenge (Figure 8), county of Wiltshire, England.  About five thousand years the place is known for strange visions.  According to Dr. Serena Roney-Dougal there are two types of stones in Stonehenge: the bluestone and the salsem stone (Figure 9).  Both have unknown electrical and magnetic properties.

Figure 8 – Stonehenge, county of Wiltshire, England.


Since 1980 Professor Persinger coordinates paranormal experiences with variations on the magnetic field during a long period inside a dark room with acoustic treatment. During his experiences, Professor Persinger, stimulates the temporal lobe[25] (Figure 10) of the volunteer leading to several visions such as fire, demons and remembrance from the past.  One last study done by Dr. Olaf Blanke from the Laussane Polythecnic School, Switzerland was regarding electrical stimulation to the angular gyrus[26] (Figure 10) of the brain causing the sensation that someone is behind the individual.

Figure 9 - Bluestone and Salsem stone.


Figure 10 – The temporal lobe and the angular gyrus.

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Supporting Professor Persinger’s explanation a researcher from USP’s (Universidade de São Paulo) Religion Social Psychology Laboratory, the psychologist Wellington Zangari, proposes that changes in sound frequencies and magnetic fields may alter each ones perception.  According to the neurologist Kátia Lin, from Unifesp (Universidade Federal de São Paulo), hallucinations are provoked major by two reasons: either by hunger or by lack of sleep.  Once interviewed by the magazine (Super Interessante, 2007), she said: “Nessas situações, os neurônios funcionam de forma anormal, criando uma realidade paralela[27].” Concluding Professor Persinger’s experience, neurology classifies apparition, as a cerebral dysfunction not diagnosticated whose symptoms are similar to the ones provoked by schizofrenia, cerebral tumour and epilepsy.

Section III.i –The Hutchison Effect

Once the question is about electrical magnetic equipments and its relationship to poltergeist the study of the Canadian physicist John Hutchison, known for his studies in the field of paranormal science should be taken into account.  Once, in 1979, trying to duplicate Nikolai Tesla’s[28] experiments, Hutchison claimed he discovered six strange phenomena (Figure 11), including:

  1. levitation of heavy objects;
  2. fusion of dissimilar materials such as metal and wood;
  3. the anomalous heating of metals without burning adjacent material;
  4. the spontaneous fracturing of metals;
  5. changes in the crystalline structure and physical properties of metals;
  6. disappearing metal samples.

Figure 11 – John Hutchison experiments. Top (Left-

Right): 1, 2, 3 Bottom (Left-Right): 4, 5.

Figure 11 – John Hutchison experiments. Top (Left-Right): 1, 2, 3 Bottom (Left-Right): 4, 5.


The Hutchison Effect occurs as the result of radio wave interferences in a zone of spatial volume encompassed 
t Marc Millis, who runs the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program for NASA, wrote to sci.physics.reasearch: “This 
"Hutchison Effect" has been claimed for years, without any independent verification - ever. In fact, its originator 
can't even replicate it on demand. 
This has been investigated more than once, been part of documentaries on the discovery channel...” (Solis, 1999)
The levitation produced by the Hutchison Effect is not the result of simple electrostatic or electromagnetic levitation 
(Solis, 1999).
Solis claims that what Hutchison did can be easily disproved by merely trying to use such methods to duplicate his experience. 
For unknown reasons the Hutchison effect only happens when Hutchison is presence.  
According to Solis the anomalous heating of metal without any evidence of burning or scorching of the adjacent 
materials, usually wood, is a clear indication that possibly the nature of heat may not be completely understood. As he once said: 
“this has far-reaching implications for thermodynamics, which hinges entirely on the presumption of such knowledge. 
The anomalous heating exhibited by the Hutchison Effect shows plainly that we have much to learn, especially where 
thermodynamics and electromagnetism meet”.
Although Solis was against the Hutchison Effect regarding the levitation process, Solis considered the spontaneous 
fracturing of metals unique for two reasons:
a.      there is no evidence of an external force causing the fracturing.
b.      the method by which the metal separates involves a sliding motion in a sideways direction, horizontally. The metal simply 
comes apart.

Figure 12a – Van der Graaf Generator

Figure 12b – Tesla Coils

Section IV - Modern Physics Behind the Ocult

“Quantum mechanics, after all, is the first theory in physics in which the role of the observer has to be taken into account.    You cannot separate the observer from the system being observed.”

 Bernard Carr, cosmologist at the University of London.

According to Bernard Carr paranormal phenomena may be divided into three main categories.  The first, “pseudo-psychic phenomena’’, may have a very simple physical explanation. Some kinds of poltergeist phenomena, for example, may fall into this category.  As he once said: “These are not really psychic, but are often misinterpreted as such”.

Second, there are phenomena – such as out-of-body and near-death experiences, hypnosis and apparitions – that may be entirely within the mind and do not necessarily involve any interaction with the physical world.  “No doubt, people have these experiences,” says Carr, “but the question is how do we intepret them?  Do they correspond to some form of higher-order reality, or are they just illusions?  It would be easy to dismiss ghosts, for example, as no more than visual hallucinations, but sometimes apparations are shared by more than one person or contain information about the real world, which makes them more interesting.”

The third type of paranormal phenomenon involves the direct interaction of the mind with the physical world, including telepathy, extrasensory perception and psycho kinesis (Physics World, 2000).

Among all the suggestions presented psycho kinesis and telepathy are the ones most studied by the quantum theory field because they may represent a connection between the observer and matter.

Understanding the connection between observer and matter requires an overview in the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle where two physical quantities are related: position and momentum.  The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle proves that measured values cannot be assigned to the position and the momentum of a moving particle, such as an electron[30], simultaneously with unlimited precision. (Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, 2005)

In an experiment whose intention is to prove the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (Figure 13), the observer uses a powerful light microscope to determine its position.  For the electron to be visible, at least one photon[31] of light must bounce off of it, and then pass through the microscope into the observer’s eye.  The photon transfers some unknown amount of momentum to the electron.  Thus, in the process of finding an accurately position of the electron the uncertainty will increase while trying to find the accurate momentum.

Figure 13 - The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Experimentation


When a photon encounters an electron, the energy transferred from the photon to the electron makes the electron change its level of energy (Figure 14).  Electrons may occupy just specific levels of energy. (Horta Santos, 1998)

(Horta Santos, 1998)

“Physics is a way to talk about psychic phenomena in a respectable manner.”

                                                                                                                 (William Roll)

What is quantum theory?  How can quantum theory explain paranormal effects as telepathy and psycho kinesis?  What are their relationships with the Ouija Board?

Quantum theory is the theory behind quantum physics, a fundamental branch of theoretical physics with wide applications in experimental physics that replaces classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism at the atomic and subatomic levels.

“The existence of telepathy phenomena has been basically confirmed through many strict experiments” (Gao Shan, 2004).

Its usual display is that one can perceive the other’s happening, say being sick or being injured etc, at a distance between the familiar people, say twins, relatives or friends. In physics, the principle of telepathy was first introduced in 1935 by Albert Einstein, as a solution to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox whose intention was to show that quantum mechanics could not be a complete theory of nature.

 The argument begins by assuming that there are two systems, A and B (which might be two free particles), whose wave functions[32] are known (Figure 15a).  Then, if A and B interact for a short period of time, one can determine the wave function of the other. If A and B move apart they can no longer interact (Figure 15b).

Figure 15a – The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox (Part 1).


Figure 15b - The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox (Part 2).


Imagining the situation, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen asked: what happens if one makes a measurement on system A?  Measuring the momentum value for system A and using the conservation of momentum with the given information of the system before the interaction, system A may infer the momentum of system B.  Thus, by making a momentum measurement of A, one can also measure the momentum of B, recalling that A and B are spacelike separated, and thus they cannot communicate in anyway. By the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, there is no certainty while measuring the linear momentum and the position of a particle simultaneously with unlimited precision. Facing the paradox, Einstein proposed two solutions that he rejected: telepathy or action over distance.  The problem with Einstein’s solutions was that they were against the postulate of inexistence of velocities greater than light.

In the 1980s it was proved that Einstein’s suggestions were right, in other words: variations of the speed of light should be considered.  One study, done by the English Whatelly Carrington (1892–1947), is about the psicon.  The psicons are mass-less particle-waves[33] that transmits information.  The purpose of considering the psicons mass-less particle-wave is to not interfere in Einstein’s theory of special relativity: relativistic mass[34] (Sarti, 1999).

The only possible way to imagine particle-waves whose speed is greater than light, not interfering in Einstein’s relativistic mass is considering the mass of the object during motion as a mathematical-imaginary nature.  Physically speaking the wave corresponds to a perfect plane wave whose speed is greater than the speed of light and whose frequency and wavelength are determined.

Psycho kinesis (PK), also known as telekinesis (TK) is defined as the paranormal ability of the mind to influence matter or energy without the use of any currently known type of physical means. In parapsychology, psychokinetic effects are divided into two groups:

·     Micro-PK, or micro-TK – a very small effect such as the manipulation of molecules, atoms, subatomic particles only being observed with the use of scientific equipments.

·     Macro-PK, or macro-TK – a large-scale effect that can be seen by the naked eye.

Walter von Lucadon proposed the solution to psycho kinetics effects titled as the Model of Pragmatic Information (MPI). In MPI anomalous of psi effects are not supernatural but meaningful correlations between the test person (psi agent) and target system (Etzold, 2004).  While interacting, the psi agent (or test subject) and the target system become a closed system with self-referential dependencies (Varella, 1985).  Pragmatic information is a “measure for the meaning of the information”. It manifests itself in “its effect on the system”, but it has no informative content, in other words, it cannot be measured.

Although this psychokinetic reasoning seems to be applicable only in quantum mechanics it may give a complex answer to the Ouija Board.  It is important to remember that each case works independently, in other words the most logical answer to the Ouija Board is fraud and by increasing the number of participants, automatically increases the probability to have a fraudulent game.

Quantum mechanics may try to answer the Ouija Board only when the palette is really moving with no mechanical interference.  So, if two people are playing and they have any kind of connection, for example familiar or friendship, they will certainly share the same source of information (carried by the psicon), or answers to the questions asked of to the Ouija Board.

Section V - Observer Participancy

“Observer participancy gives rise to information; and information gives rise to physics.”

(John Wheeler 1990, Quoted by Frieden, 1998 p.1)

Since 1988, it is known that perception affects the physical world. As the mathematical physicist, B. Roy Frieden, once said: “The request for data creates the law that ultimately, gives rise to the data.  The observer creates his or her local reality”. (p.i). Frieden goes beyond quantum mechanics[35] when he derives statistical mechanics[36], thermodynamics[37] and the Einstein field equations[38] from a theory where the observer is part of the phenomena that are measured (Roll, 2003).

He describes all physical processes in terms of differential equations[39]. (The theory is an outgrowth of the work of the British statistician, A.R. Fisher).  According to Frieden, observation injects information into its object. Information thereby interacts with energy and matter within the object and between this and other objects. Information is “a physical entity” that can “flow” from one object to another (p.106), supporting the Model of Pragmatic Information.

According to one study proposed by the American physicist Evan Walker in 1985, there is a relation between psycho kinesis and quantum mechanics implying that the human operator affects physical systems.  As he once said: “This must lie at the heart of the solution to the problem of psi phenomena; and indeed and understanding of psi phenomena and of consciousness must provide the basis of an improved understanding of [quantum mechanics].” (Walker, 1985, p. 26).

As William Roll once said: “the psi effects may be understood in terms of “psi fields” that have psychological and physical characteristics and surround and connect physical objects.”  Supporting Roll’s hypothesis but emphasizing it, William Joines says: “that the RSPK is due to “psi waves” that manifest as wave motion like physical waves; there should be a decline of incidents with distance from the source that is the RSPK agent”.

It seems clear that psychological factors, especially emotion, are involved in RSPK. According to William Roll there are anecdotal reports that some RSPK agents have learnt to bring phenomena on at will.

Psychologists have shown that perception and behavior are molded by physiology, intention, needs, memories and other factors that are likely to be different for each person.  From the usual physics perspective the effect of observation is the same for all observers.

Observation and its emotional concomitants are known to affect the way people perceive and act on the environment.  It would be surprising if the same were not true for physicists and their experiments.  It is suggestive that results in tests conducted by believers in a certain effect support their belief while skeptics get null results.

Observer participancy may be combined with the zero-point energy and with the psicon. By interaction with the zero-point energy, the electromagnetic component of psi waves would be expected to bring on a transient attenuation of the gravity/inertia that ordinarily keeps things in place. If an emotionally charged object has been freed of gravity/inertia, the object may levitate.  The role of the RSPK agent would be twofold, to cause a brief cancellation of the gravity/inertia of the object through the zero-point energy and to direct energy to the object for its movement.  Because the object is now free to move, the intensity of the energy from the agent would decrease.

This interaction between observer and matter is described by what is known by the Easterners as the spiritual energy, for science: zero-point energy.  The philosophical theory behind spiritual energy first started in India, with the Vedas scriptures[40]. Prajñā is defined as the absolute energy, the principle of life.  Prajñā not only strengths the human body but also the brain making able the one who develops it to acquire psychic powers. What is known as the magnetic healing, from Franz Mesmer’s philosophy of animal magnetism; to the Easterners is a controlled prajñā.  (Hatha-Yoga, 1999)

“Encontra-se em todas as formas de vida, desde a ameba até o  homem – desde a vida vegetal mais elementar, até a mais elevada  vida animal. Prajna penetra tudo... Prajna é o nome com que designamos um princípio universal, o qual é a essência de todo movimento, força ou energia, quer se manifeste como    gravitação,eletricidade, revolução planetária ou qualquer forma de  vida, da mais elevada à mais inferior.  Pode ser chamada a alma da  força e da energia em todas as suas manifestações, ou o princípio  que, operando de certo modo, produz a forma de atividade que acompanha a vida....  Este grande princípio existe em todas as formas  de matéria e, não obstante, não é matéria. Está no ar, mas não é o ar    nem nenhum dos seus elementos químicos.  Está no alimento que comemos e, entretanto não é nenhuma das substâncias químicas que,    combinadas constituem a água. É a “energia” que existe em todas as coisas –– as coisas agem simplesmente como um condutor.”

(Hatha-Yoga, Ramacháraca, Chapter XX, p. 123-124)[41]

Another philosophical theory that used the fundaments of the prajñā is the Chinese doctrine of ch’i and the Japanese doctrine of ki. Ch’i or ki, is believed to be part of every living thing that exists, as a kind of “life force” or spiritual energy.  The concepts of ki (Figure 16) are more explored in the Japanese philosophy of martial arts such as Aikido[42] (Figure 17) that emphasizes joining with an attack and redirecting the attacker’s energy, as opposed to meeting force with force.

Figure 16 – Aikido. The first image shows the word Aikido in Japanese and in the second shows the practice of the martial art.

( ,

Figure 17 – Ki.


Applying this reasoning to science, where the observer has the ability to participate in the system the researcher Dr. Keith Schwab and his team from the Physics Department of Cornell University created a quantum device whose temperature could be easily decreased just by looking.  The device (Figure 18) is an aluminized bar over a substrate of silicon nitrite with a dimension of approximately 8,7 micrometers-millionth of a meter – length per 200 nanometers – billionth of a meter – of width whose extremes were tied up having its center free to any vibration (Nature, 2006).

 Figure 18 – Image captured by a electronic detector microscope, Cornell University.


Next to the aluminized bar Schwab positioned a superconducting single-electron transistor (SSET) to detect any difference regarding its position.  Quantum mechanics demands that the act of measurement must affect the measured object. When a linear amplifier is used to continuously monitor the position of an object, the Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle requires that the object be driven by force impulses, called back-action. As Dr. Schweib said:

“Here we measure the back-action of a SSET on a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator.  The conductance of the SSET, which is capacitively coupled to the resonator, provides a sensitive probe of the latter's position; back-action effects manifest themselves as an effective thermal bath, the properties of which depend sensitively on SSET bias conditions.  Surprisingly, when the SSET is biased near a transport resonance, we observe cooling of the nanomechanical mode from 550 mK[43] to 300 mK an effect that is analogous to laser cooling in atomic physics.  Our measurements have implications for nanomechanical readout of quantum information devices and the limits of ultrasensitive force microscopy (such as single-nuclear-spin magnetic resonance force microscopy).  Furthermore, we anticipate the use of these back-action effects to prepare ultracold and quantum states of mechanical structures, which would not be accessible with existing technology”.

Chapter III


This thesis was written with the purpose to analyze the relationship between the motion of the palette in the Ouija Board and the studies in, psychology and physics.

The researched information presented in this thesis was gathered from many sources. It included the use of Internet web sites, articles from scientific magazines, books, documentaries, and an interview.  Documentaries were important sources, since this research talks about events that are not commonly reproduced. Historical data was obtained mainly from the used of internet web sites. The interview was made so as to clarify and enrich some aspects of the research, the psiconic theory.

These materials qualify this thesis as being a scientific, qualitative and correlational research.  Scientific because it involves studying and explaining the motion of the palette in the Ouija Board and how science responds to it.  Qualitative because it is not proved by any mathematical mean.  Correlational, due to verify whether a relationship exists between the motion of the palette with scientific explanations.

Chapter IV

Analysis of Data

An interview was made with one physicist and mechanical engineer, in order to enrich the conclusion of this work.  The interview with Geraldo Sarti, mechanical engineer graduated from the actual Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) with a masters in Physics from Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME-RJ), was useful since he gave clear answers and ideas about its properties, within what was proposed by this thesis answering questions specifically about the theory of information – the psiconic theory.  The questions sent to Geraldo Sarti are in Annex B. His answers, in Portuguese, are in Annex C, having the translation into English in Annex D.

Once proposed to Geraldo Sarti a possible relationship between science and the motion of the palette in the Ouija Board a common answer was achieved, between the author and the interviewed: fraud. As the purpose of this thesis was to analyze any scientifically explanation of the Ouija Board, where fraud is not the best answer, the interviewed agreed with the author that each case works independent.

In the first question, Sarti defends the psiconic theory because it has a mathematical and psychophysical nature.  According to Sarti, the psicons best answer paranormal situations because they do not contradict the Einstein’s principle of special relativity and it answers the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox, by the suggestion given by Einstein, telepathy.  As stated in section IV – Modern Physics Behind the Occult, “The existence of telepathy phenomena has been basically confirmed through many strict experiments” (Gao Shan, 2004).

In his studies the psicon has a wave-particle duality and each case should be analyzed differently.  Geraldo Sarti, answered the second question by trying to introduce to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox.  Sarti’s main objective in this question was to clarify that the psicon is 100% present in space-time, meaning it is everywhere.

Although less explored in the thesis, the subject about takions was explored in question number three where a comparison was made with the psicons.  The author brought this question because the takions share the same properties with the psicons.  Between these common properties takions are hypothetical particles that also exceed the speed of light, but the main difference between them is that the takions not carry information.

As poltergeist, one of the solutions of the Ouija Board, explained in section III – Poltergeist, The Noisy Ghost, the author focused in the relationship between the psicon and poltergeist, with the intention to relate all the studies proposed by this thesis, which answered the Ouija.  In this question Geraldo Sarti exemplified how the psiconic theory explains the poltergeist.

With the intention to explore the experimental field of paranormal studies, the author asked in question number six if there is any official experience which can be reproduced in a physics lab.  According to Geraldo Sarti, is not so simple to prove the existence of a psicon just by experience, as it is known that the psicon has an imaginary mass.  The purpose of the question was to clarify if exist a huge gap between the theoretical and the experimental studies.

As this thesis is a correlational research between psychological and physical studies that tries to answer the motion of the Ouija information about the conscious and unconscious should be given. In section II – Flaws of the Ideomotor Effect, the author explains that the Freud’s psychoanalytic reviews should not be applied in the involuntary motion of the participant.  With the intention to know if the same reasoning is applicable in question number seven, the author asked Geraldo Sarti to compare Lacan’s, Freud’s and Jung’s point of view.  Of the three Sarti used Jung’s collective unconscious to answer the question.

As was clearly stated by Geraldo Sarti in question number two the psicons have a definite momentum and 100% of chances to be found in space-time.  Apparently, to the author, it seems to violate Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle because as the Principle states, it is impossible in nature to determine the position and the velocity of a particle simultaneously.   In this question, Sarti explained that as the psicons are wave-particles it does not violate the Uncertainty Principle.

When asked his opinion on the palette’s motion and how the psiconic theory would be a possible explanation to the Ouija Board, a series of studies were cited by Geraldo and all of them are part from what the relationship of the thesis proposes, at least, from the physical studies.

Similar to the author’s religion, the author has not defined his position regarding religion, preferring scientific then mystical explanations for unexplained phenomena, labeled paranormal. When asked to Geraldo

Sarti about his beliefs in the Ouija Board, he clearly shows his position saying it has different situations and each situation deserves a different attention, but the most common is fraud. As he said, the Ouija Board should be broken into different parts, where all of them have as a key for understanding the principle of the psiconic theory.

Chapter V


“There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are   dreamt of in your philosophy.”

 (William Shakespeare – Hamlet, ACT I Scene 5)

Until recent years, there were only a few scientific studies on the interaction among paranormal effects and physics.  The author believes that the reason for the lack of scientific support is basically because most researchers and readers do not academically respect this topic.  The point of this thesis was to prove that there is a relationship between the motion of the palette and science.

It apparently seems to be extremely rare to have a situation where the palette moves by unknown reasons.  The hypothesis that there are voluntary forces leading to fraud is proved through four studies: autosuggestion and self-delusion (in the field of psychology), poltergeist and Model of Pragmatic Information (in the field of physics).

The author understands that there are two kinds of frauds in question: voluntary and involuntary.  The voluntary fraud relies on the principle that the player, or participant, wants to force the game to respond to his/her expectations.

The involuntary fraud is explained through the psychological studies of autosuggestion and self-delusion.

 In order to support the hypothesis and show the relationship between the Ouija Board and physics, the author analyzed an interview done with the Brazilian physicist and mechanical engineer Geraldo Sarti, who proved mathematically the Model of Pragmatic Information and its relationship with the fundamental concepts of telepathy and psycho kinesis.

A better understanding of this thesis requires an open-minded disposition in order to separate religion from paranormal motions and effects such as the poltergeist phenomenon or apparitions.

The author does not agree with the application of the poltergeist phenomenon in the Ouija Board, because it makes no sense to consider its occurrence when the participants control the final answer by touching the palette.  The Model of Pragmatic Information seems to be a more appropriate approach explaining that the system itself contains something that resembles a “memory” where information’s from the past are stored. The most reasonable and acceptable studies, in that case, are the ones in the field of psychology because they deal with the interaction between people with different beliefs, in an adapted environment.

Through his research, the author was able to identify and relate different studies to prove his hypothesis, the establishment of a link between the moving phenomena, physics and psychology.          


► Books

Hawking, Stephen (2005) Os Gênios da Ciência: Sobre os ombros de gigantes (pp. 335-362) (1st edition). Editora Elsevier and Editora Campus, São Paulo.

Braude, Ann (1989) Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women’s Rights in 19th Century America (2nd edition), Copyright Cahners Business Information, Inc. New York.

Capra, Fritjof (1983) O Tao da Física (pp. 230 – 233) (2nd edition). Editora Cultrix, São Paulo.

Davies, Paul (1970) God And The New Physics (pp.113 – 114) (1st edition). J.M Dent & Sons, Ltd., London.

Santos, Horta (1998) O Tempo e a Mente: O Universo Inteligente  (pp. 198 – 200) (1st edition). Editora Nova Era, Rio de Janeiro.

Sarti, Geraldo (1991) Psicons: Do Real Ao Imaginário (1st edition). ABRAP – Associação Brasileira de Parapsicologia Rio de Janeiro.  

Halliday, David, Resnick, Robert, Walker, Jearl (2005) Fundamentals of Physics (pp. 1073-1074) (7th edition). John Wiley & Sons Inc. New Jersey.

Zitzewitz, Paul W, and Neff, Robert F, (1992) Physics: Principles and Problems (pp. 555 - 571) (1st edition). Glencoe: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.

Internet Websites

_________________, “Conceptual Model of Paranormal Phenomena”, Jack Houk, August 2 2006 10:50 PM. pg. 01

_________________, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox”, Eric Weisstein World of Physics, August 23, 2005 19:26PM, pg.01

_________________, “Super Physics”, Tripod, February 2, 2007, 08:30PM, pg.01.

_________________, “Bell’s Inequalities”, Wolfram Research,, August 2, 2006 10:51PM, pg. 01.

_________________, “Museum of Talking Boards: Automatism vs. Spiritualist Theories of Ouija”, , November 29, 2006 2:12PM pg. 01.

_________________, “Museum of Talking Boards: History of the Talking Board”, Museum of Talking Boards, August 18, 2006 11:43 AM, pg. 01.

_________________, “The Ouija Board” November 29, 2006 2:12PM pg. 01.

Ciodin, Antonio Orlando., “Franz Anton Mesmer” January 30, 2007 3:01PM, pg.01.

Sollis, Mark A., “The Hutchison Effect” http://sci.physics.reasearch March 25, 2007 4:00 PM, pg. 01

_________________, “Carpenter | William Benjamin | 1813-1885 | Naturalist Botanist”, February 2, 2007, 08:34PM, pg.01.

Wagner, Stephen., “Ouija: How Does It Work?  Is the Ouija a fascinating game for harmless fun... or a dangerous gateway to the unknown?.”, The New York Times. Co, February 2, 2007, 08:20PM, pg.01.

Radmül, Udo Sperlich, “Pedras de Energia-do-Ponto-Zero” May 10, 2007 11:17 PM, pg. 01-02


(Roll, 2003)The Electromagnetic Field of Space, William Roll The Journal of Scientific Exploration”, Vol. 17, No. 1 pp. 79, 2003

(Gearhart and Persinger, 1986) The Electromagnetic Field of Space, William Roll The Journal of Scientific Exploration”, Vol. 17, No. 1 pp. 79, 2003

(Super Interessante, 2007) Eles Vêem Espíritos, Aryane Cararo Super Interessante, (nº 237 – March 2007. p.58)

(Gao Shan, 2004) “A Primary Quantum Model of Telepathy”, Gao Shan Chinese Institute of Electronics and Institute of Quantum Physics, Beijing, The Parapsychological Association Convention 2004, p. 413-414

(Duane & Behrendt, 1965; Targ & Puthoff, 1974; Puthoff & Targ, 1976; Radin & Nelson, 1989; Grinberg-Zylberbaum et al, 1994; Bierman & Radin, 1997; Gao, 2000; Wackermann et al, 2003.)

(Etzold, 2004) “Does Psi Exist and Can We Prove It? Belief and Disbelief in Psycho kinesis Research”, Eckhard Etzold The Parapshycological Association Convention 2004 p.367-377,

(Varella, 1985) Observer Participancy, William Roll, State University of West Georgia, Journal of Scientific Exploration p.80 - 84

(Roll, 2003). Observer Participancy, William Roll, State University of West Georgia, Journal of Scientific Exploration p.80 - 84

(Walker, 1985) Consciousness and The Quantum Theory, E.H. Walker, Psychic Exploration, Putnam Press.

(Nature, 2006) Schwab, K.C. et al (2006), Cooling a Nanomechanical Resonator with Quantum Back-Action p.193-196. Nature 443.

(Lucadou, 1997) “Does Psi Exist and Can We Prove It? Belief and Disbelief in Psycho kinesis Research”, Eckhard Etzold The Parapshycological Association Convention 2004 p.370,


Ultra Science: The Ghost Hunter. Produced and directed by Peter Charley. 34 min. Discovery Communications, Inc., 1997. Videocassete

Beth Goulart – Edifício Joelma. Produced and directed by TV Globo. 2 min 56 sec. Linha Direta, 2005. Internet.

Hutchison ZP Footage. Produced and directed by Amercian Antigravity. [5 min,8 min 27s]. Google Video. Internet

Appendix A

Interview originally designed by the author.

Interview for the thesis of student Lucas Raphael Alfaia Mutti.

A Psychological and Physical Inquiry Into The Ouija Board Phenomena

  1.      What is the psiconic theory?

2.      What are the properties of the particle-wave psicon and how does it travel in space-time?

3.      Theoretically speaking both takions and psicons travel at a speed greater than light. What make them different while solving the Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen Paradox?

4.      How does the psicon explain poltergeist phenomena?

5.      How did you develop the psiconic theory?

6.      Is there any experiment behind the psiconic theory or it is just a theoretical model of how it answers the Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen Paradox?

7.      In your book Psicons – Do Real ao Imaginário, chapter 10 p. 44 you mention the relation of the psicon and conscious. Is this conscious the same defined by Freud, Jung or Lacan?

8.      As the psicons have a 100% presence on space-time would this violate the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, as its position and velocity would be practical to calculate?

9.      Do you believe the psiconic theory may answer the mysteries behind the Ouija Board?

Appendix B

Interview used by the author, written in Portuguese, which was sent to Mr. Geraldo Sarti from the Associação Brasileira de Parapsicologia.

Entrevista para Tese do aluno Lucas Raphael Alfaia Mutti.

Um Estudo Psicológico e Físico Sobre O Fenômeno da Tábua Ouija

1.      O que é a teoria psicônica?

2.      Quais são as propriedades da partícula-onda psicon e como a própria viaja no espaço-tempo?

3.      Teoricamente falando, táquions e psicons viajam a velocidade acima da velocidade da luz. O que os torna diferente ao tentar resolver o paradoxo Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen? 

4.      Como o psicon explica o fenômeno poltergeist?

5.      Como o senhor desenvolveu a teoria psicônica?

6.      Existe qualquer experiência por trás da teoria psicônica ou é somente um modelo teórico para solucionar o paradoxo Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen?

7.      No livro do senhor Psicons – Do Real ao Imaginário, capítulo 10 p.44 o senhor menciona a relação do psicon com o consciente.  Esse consciente é o mesmo  definido por Freud, Jung, ou Lacan?

8.      Como os psicons têm 100% de presença no espaço-tempo isso não violaria o Príncipio da Incerteza de Heisenberg de forma que a sua posição e velocidade seriam calculáveis?

9.      O senhor acredita que a teoria psicônica possa resolver o mistério da Tábua Ouija?

Appendix C

            Interview with the physicist and mechanical engineer Geraldo Sarti, pioneer of the psiconic theory, graduated by Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Brazil, with masters in Physics from the Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME-RJ), Brazil.

1.      O que é a teoria psicônica?

GERALDO: A teoria psicônica é de natureza psicofísica e matemática, diferente da teoria espírita (Kardec) e da teoria da sincronicidade (Jung), sendo uma extrapolação da expressão ESP (Rhine).  Ela tenta expressar, descrever, explicar e solucionar, de forma integrada nos psicons, os fenômenos PSI em suas várias manifestações, entendendo-se por PSI aqueles fenômenos “psicológicos” que insistem em, aparentemente,  violar as leis conhecidas como as de causa-efeito e de conservação de quantidades física como energia e massa e de aumento da entropia em sistemas fechados.

2.      Quais são as propriedades da partícula-onda psicon e como a própria viaja no espaço-tempo?

GERALDO: O psicon, enquanto onda, é plana e perfeita isto é não interage energeticamente com potências ou partículas físicas. Suas interações com o mundo físico são da ordem da informação semântica, dito de outra forma, relaciona-se com objetos ou situações dos universos fundamentais e físicos como se estes fossem sujeitos a interferências exclusivamente psicológicas, conceituais.

Como onda plana e perfeita, ele possui quantidade de movimento e freqüência perfeitamente definidos e constantes, justamente por não interagir com o mundo material. Movendo-se livremente e não se deformando.  Os psicons-ondas não são apropriados para expressar partículas reais mas sim psicons-partículas de massa em movimento imaginária matemática.

Em contra-partida, como função de ondas planas e perfeitas têm a propriedade de ocupar todo o espaço-tempo.  Pontualmente, eu diria que a probabilidade de um psicon-partícula ser encontrado em qualquer lugar específico do espaço-tempo é máxima (100%).  Neste caso cada psicon forma um vácuo, vazio de qualquer energia, massa ou campo (à exceção possivelmente do campo gravitacional).

Como as ondas psicônicas não se deformam, elas não formam pacotes com partículas reais mais ou menos localizadas e sim absolutamente não localizadas.  A incerteza espaço-temporal é portanto infinita e a única partícula que pode representar é mesmo um psicon-partícula imaginário-matemática que se move, naturalmente a velocidades supralumínicas.  Repetindo, posso dizer que um psicon-onda é um vácuo não sintático e que o psicon-particula, a ele associado conduz as informações / semânticas.

O aparente paradoxo poderá ser solucionado ao considerar-se que um psicon-onda só tem velocidade de fase, não de grupo (não há pacotes), velocidade esta que propaga a probabilidade semântica (velocidade da corrente de probabilidade), nesse caso passível de indeterminação

3.      Teoricamente falando, táquions e psicons viajam a velocidade acima da velocidade da luz. O que os torna diferente ao tentar resolver o paradoxo Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen? 

GERALDO: Não possuindo funções de onda explicitadas, os táquions não se aplicam à comutação de operadores conjugados, ao contrário dos psicons, mas, a diferença, básica entre ambos é que o táquion não carrega informação, enquanto os psicons carregam.

4.      Como o psicon explica o fenômeno poltergeist?

GERALDO: O poltergeist (RSPK) é um fenômeno razoavelmente complexo.  Nele estão envolvidos: teleportações, combustão, levitação, entortamento de metais, movimentos aleatórios de vários tipos, piscar de lâmpadas, várias manifestações elétricas e magnéticas espontânea, etc.

Tem sido observada a presença de um epicentro, em geral um adolescente ou pré-adolescente, com características de conflito sintomático de neurose precoce. Admite-se assim que ele descarregue sua neurose sobre o ambiente que o cerca.  Aplicar-se o psicon por exemplo nos seguintes casos:

    • Teleportação: como solução das equações de perturbação quântica de Schrödinger, ou por aproximação a zero, do operador potencial perturbador, a medida que as dimensões físicas do sistema aumentam (aplicação macrofísica da teoria das perturbações).

    • Levitação e movimentos antigravidade: como formador de singularidades  pesadas por auto-aniquilamento do vácuo. Nesse caso há encurvamento geodésico do espaço-tempo local.

    • Entortamento de metais (PKMB): como elemento informacional do plasma metálico com retorno antientrópico dos elétrons as bandas iônicas de origem e conseqüentes plastificação e alteração da resistividade do ex-metal.

    • Fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos (PKEM): prevalecendo sobre as normais constantes dielétricas do ar, com geração espontânea de campos vetoriais elétricos e magnéticos. 

5.      Como o senhor desenvolveu a teoria psicônica?

GERALDO: Meu interesse pela parapsicologia surgiu quando eu era criança, antes que lesse ou falasse, devido acontecimentos estranhos que ocorrem com todas as crianças.  Tais acontecimentos foram cessando mas meu interesse permaneceu.  Estudando Jung e Rhine, achei que poderia fazer uma síntese entre eles mas me deparei com dificuldades matemáticas, que minha formação acadêmica pôde contornar razoavelmente.  Movido mas por interesse filosófico e intuitivo imaginei que o sacrossanto Einstein pudesse ter sido parcial na sua interpretação da natureza limitando-a a velocidade da luz.  Com isso, há vinte e cinco anos esbocei uma teoria que chamei de Teoria Psicônica, nela observando a flagrante violação às leis psicofísicas vigentes.

Meu último livro, embora compacto, dá uma idéia que acho boa sobre os psicons e suas aplicações aos fenômenos PSI.

6.       Existe qualquer experiência por trás da teoria psicônica ou é somente um modelo teórico para solucionar o paradoxo Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen?

GERALDO: As experiências dos paranormais relatadas em todo mundo estão por trás da teoria.

Tentamos eu e o Dr.Horta Santos, também físico, algumas experiências em laboratório, porém foram infrutíferas com o sujeito experimentado.  A pesquisa teórica tem sido realmente minha principal fonte mas o retorno constante à experimentação e ao controle humanos é imprescindível embora a própria fenomenologia seja rica em descrições literárias de outros pesquisadores de campo e de laboratório.

Respondendo a segunda pergunta, a solução do paradoxo Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen não é o único elemento central da teoria, mesmo que muito importante para seu entendimento.

7.      No livro do senhor Psicons – Do Real ao Imaginário, Capítulo 10 p.44 o senhor menciona a relação do psicon com o consciente.  Esse consciente é o mesmo definido por Freud, Jung, ou Lacan?

GERALDO: Basicamente a teoria dos psicons tenta descrever os fenômenos PSI através de partículas imaginárias e ondas planas. Tais psicons configuram as informações semânticas, conceituais, elemento  fundamental às nossas percepções e nossos entendimentos da vida cotidiana material, que nos permitem sobreviver frente à infinda quantidade de informações sintáticas a que aparentemente está sujeito ao nosso sistema nervoso.

 Estudos das atividades elétricas cerebrais revelam que reduções dos padrões freqüências eletrográficos vêm acompanhadas de experiências culminante e coletivas posteriormente relatadas pelos  sujeitos    dos experimentos.  Aqui, tratamos da manutenção de um  “inconsciente” coletivo (Jung) ou de um conhecimento extra-sensorial (Rhine) que foi mantido embora não percebido durante sua vivencia.  Nas   suas hipóteses de um inconsciente substantivo individual.  Freud admite um terceiro inconsciente, presente na prática psicanalítica que influencia  as relações entre o paciente e o analista através  do conhecimento mútuo  e inefável dos conteúdos afetivos de um sobre o outro.

Lacan, por outro lado, deu sua visão da mentes freudianas, adequando a teoria psicanalítica à psicose tornando-a extremamente  verbal, mas sem alterar essencialmente o que havia sido proposto por  Freud, em termos de neurose.

8.      Como os psicons têm 100% de presença no espaço-tempo isso não violaria o Princípio da Incerteza de Heisenberg de forma que a sua posição e velocidade seriam calculáveis?

GERALDO: Efetivamente os psicons violariam o princípio da incerteza com a introdução de uma função de onda psicônica.  Como ondas, tem 100% de probabilidade de encontrar-se em qualquer ponto do espaço-tempo.  Entretanto, por serem imaginárias, ao violarem o princípio da incerteza quando observados como partículas, não poderiam ser medidos.  Porém, posição e massa x velocidade podem ser calculadas pelos psicons-ondas dos observadores pois são as expressões do pensamento zerando a equação de comutação e atendendo simultaneamente ao princípio de completude de Einstein.

9.      O senhor acredita que os psicons possam resolver o mistério da Tábua Ouija?

      GERALDO: A tábua Ouija deveria ser analisada em partes:

    • Telepatia ou link-mente-mente (teoria psicônica)

    • Psicocinese ou link-mente-matéria (teoria psicônica)

    • Teleportação “especial” pois direcionada por conteúdos anteriores dos sujeitos em estado de vigília alfa. (Aparentemente não se aplica a teoria psicônica.)

    • Simulcognição confusa ou aleatória, isto é, as respostas do copo, tanto em relação ao presente como ao passado e futuro não expressam, ao que eu saiba, nenhuma forma coerente de resposta, embora pareça, como já dito em telepatia, possível de um domínio informacional inteligente.

Appendix D

Interview with the physicist and mechanical engineer Geraldo Sarti, pioneer of the psiconic theory, graduated by Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Brazil, with masters in Physics from the Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME-RJ), Brazil.

1.      What is the psiconic theory?

      GERALDO: Different from the spiritual theory (Kardec) and the synchronicity (Jung) the psiconic theory is of mathematical and psycho physical nature, a continuation of the ESP (Rhine). It tries to explain,  describe, and solve the PSI phenomena in all of its manifestations, which  violate the laws known as cause-effect from the conservation of physical quantities such as mass and energy and the increase of entropy in closed  systems.

2.      What are the properties of the particle-wave psicon and how does it travel in space-time?

GERALDO: As a wave the psicon is perfectly plane not interacting energetically with any physical particle. Its interaction with the physical world is from semantic information.

As a perfect plane wave, it has a definite and constant momentum and frequency, as it does not interact with objects. It may move freely and it does not deform. The psicon-wave is not used to express real particles but only the psicon-particle of imaginary mathematical mass in motion.

As psicon-wave it may be found in all space-time, having a probability of 100% to be found. In this situation, each psicon forms a vacuum, which lacks energy, mass or field (with exception of the gravitational). It is possible to imagine

The uncertainty space-time is infinite and the only particle that may represent is on psicon-particle mathematically imaginary, with speed greater than light.

3.      Theoretically speaking both takions and psicons travel at a speed greater than light. What make them different while solving the Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen Paradox?

     GERALDO: As the takions do not have explicitly wave functions, they are not applicable to the commutation of conjugate operator, different from the psicons. Their difference is that the takions do not carry information while the psicons carry.

4.      How the psicon does explain poltergeist phenomena?

     GERALDO: The poltergeist (RSPK) is a reasonable complex phenomenon. During a poltergeist, it is observed the presence of an epicenter, normally an adolescent or pre-adolescent, with psychological problems. The psicons are applicable on the following situations:

  • Teleportation: solution of the equations of Schrödinger quantum perturbations, or by approaching zeros the potential operator, as the physical dimensions increase (macro physical application).

  • Anti-gravity: is broken the relationship inertia/gravity ending the vacuum. In this case there is the geodesic curving of space-time.

  • Metal Bending (PKMB): informational element of the metallic plasma with anti-entropy of electrons and ionic bands, changing the capacity of resisting of the ex-metal.

  • Electrical phenomena (PKEM): occur over the dielectrically constants of air, with spontaneous generation of vectorial electrical and magnetic fields.

5.      How did you develop the psiconic theory?

GERALDO: My interest in parapsychology developed when I was young,  before reading or speaking, thanks to the strange things that usually   happen with young children. Such things, as naturally stopped but my interest increased. While studying Jung and Rhine, I thought I could synthesize their ideas, but thanks to mathematics I could answer these  interactions. From my interest in philosophy and the intuitive I've imagined that Einstein was partial in his interpretation, limiting his interpretation to the speed of light. Twenty-five years ago I've started the psiconic theory,  where it violated the psychophysical laws. My last book, although short, explains the psiconic theory and its applications to the PSI phenomena. 

6.      Is there any experiment behind the psiconic theory or it is just a theoretical model of how it answers the Einstein-Podoslky-Rosen Paradox?

GERALDO: The paranormals experiences are behind the pscionic theory.  With the help of Dr. Horta Santos, also a physicist, a series of  unsuccessful experiences were done. The theoretical research is my  active field although regarding experimentation and human controls is not    so hard to find. Answering the second question, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox is not the central element of the psiconic theory, although it is extremely important for the theoretical understanding.

7.      In your book Psicons – Do Real ao Imaginário, Chapter 10 p. 44 you mention the relation of the psicon and conscious. Is this conscious the same defined by Freud, Jung or Lacan?

GERALDO: The psiconic theory tries to describe the PSI phenomena by  the use of imaginary particles and plane waves. Such psicons configure  this semantic and conceptual information, vital to our perceptions and our understanding, permitting us to deal with the infinite number of syntactic information, which is linked with our nervous system.

Studies of the electrical activities in the brain reveal that the reduction of  the electrographic frequency is a consequence of the experience lived  by  the one’s that face the experiments. This reasoning is the same used by Jung, in his collective unconscious or and extra-sensorial knowledge (Rhine). According to Freud is admitted a third type of unconscious, normally  found in the interaction between a patient and an annalist during  a psychoanalytic session.

 Lacan, in the other hand, gave his vision of the Freudians minds, using the psychoanalytic theory into psychoses, verbalizing it, but not change  the idea proposed by Freud.

8.      As the psicons have a 100% presence on space-time would this violate the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, as its position and velocity would be practical to calculate?

GERALDO: As waves the psicons have 100% of chances to be   located in space-time, violating Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. But as they are imaginary, once violating Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle,  when observed as a particle they could not be measured. But, as position and mass x velocity may be calculated by the psicon-waves of the observer as they are expressions of thought equaling to zero the commutate equation and following Einstein’s principle. 

9.      Do you believe the psiconic theory may answer the mysteries behind the Ouija Board?

GERALDO: The Ouija Board should be analyzed in parts:

            a) Telepathy or link-mind-mind (psiconic theory)

            b) Psycho kinesis or link-mind-matter (psiconic theory)

            c) Special teleportation directed by the participants of the session.    (Apparently the psiconic theory is not applicable)

d) Confused or at random simulcognition, meaning that the answer of the palette or cup in relation to the present, past or future do not express, according to my knowledge, a coherent answer although it seems, as stated in telepathy, caused by an intelligent informational domain.

[1] “From the unreal, guide me to what is real! From darkness, guide me to light! From death, guide me to immortality!” Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad is considered to be one of the oldest Upanishads, around the eighth century BC, what makes up the oldest Hindu Scriptures, which talks about philosophy, meditation and spiritualism.

[2] A destined court to defend the Catholic faith: it watched, it pursued and it condemned those that were suspected to practice other religions.  All cultural production was censured as well all the scientific innovations that seemed a threat to the Church.  In the truth, the Church was afraid that these ideas would lead believers to religious doubt and impeach the authority of the Pope. (Wikipedia, 2006)

[3] Book of Joshua, Chapter 10, Verses 6 to 9

[4] Book of Joshua, Chapter 10, Verses 13 to 15.

[6] Prounonced: ([seɪɑ:ns]) is, on its most basic level, an attempt to communicate with the dead.  The word séance comes from the French word for 'seat', 'session', from Old French seoir, 'to sit.'

[7] An individual who claims to posess the ability to receive messages from spirits (discorporate entities), or claims that he or she can channel such entities — that is, write or speak in the voice of these entities rather than in the medium's own voice.

[8] German physician born in the region of Iznang. In 1766 he published his doctoral dissertation, De planetarum influxu in corpus humanum (On the Influence of the Planets on the Human Body), being accused of plagiarism by Frank A.  Pattie from a work done by Richard Mead (1673-1754).

[9] (Also known as mesmerism) is the 18th century term for the ethereal medium postulated by Franz Mesmer as a therapeutic agent.

[10] English physiologist and naturalist, (10/29/1813-11/10/1885) considered as one of the founders of the modern theory of the adaptive unconscious.

[11] “Magnetism prepared spiritualism, and its fast developments are exclusively dedicated to the spread of the ideas related to magnetism, such as somnambulism, ecstasy and spiritual manifestations.  Its connection is such that it is, impossible to speak of one without mentioning the other.” Source:

[12] “Spiritualism binds to magnetism for close bows.  These sciences in solidarity... the spirits always praise magnetism, wanting it as a healing process.” Source:

[13] (1842-1910) An American psychologist and philosopher.

[14] Also known, as classical mechanics is the field of physics that deals with motion, rate of change of energy and forces that act over a body.

[15] Not completely conscious; partially or imperfectly conscious: subconscious perceptions.  The part of the mind below the level of conscious perception.

[16] Lacking awareness and the capacity for sensory perception; not conscious, without conscious control; involuntary or unintended.

[17] (1856-1939) A Jewish-Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist, known as the “father of psychoanalysis” who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology.

[18] General term for approaches to psychoanalysis which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less independent of clinical practice rather than based on empirical analysis of clinical cases.

[19] Noted psychologist and parapsychologist from the Psychology Department of the University of West Georgia.

[20] Source: - To hold together as a mass.

[21] Gravitation is a phenomenon through which all objects attract each other, theory proposed by Sir Isaac Newton in the late 17th century.  The value of the acceleration of gravity in planet Earth corresponds to 9.8 m/s2

[22] Fundamental law of classical physics, or Newton’s First Law of Motion, used to describe the motion of matter and how applied forces affect it.  Inertia is the tendency an object has to remain constant in velocity unless acted upon by an outside force.

[23] A type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation.

[24] Lysergic acid diethylamide, a semi synthetic psychedelic drug.

[25] The part that resides both sides of the brain, beneath the lateral.

[26] A region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus.

[27] “In these situations the neurons work abnormally, creating a parallel reality.’

[28] American-Serbian mechanical and electrical engineer, physicist and inventor.  Contributed to the advance in electricity and magnetism in the late 19th century and early 20th century.

[29] An electrostatic machine which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high voltages on a hollow metal globe.

[30] A fundamental subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge.

[31] Elementary particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena.  It has a mass value of zero and travels at the constant speed c, celeritas in Latin, the speed of light

[32] A mathematical tool that quantum mechanics uses to describe any physical system. It is a function from a space that consists of the possible states of the system.

[33] All objects in the universe under particle-wave duality exhibit properties of both waves and of particles.

[34] Mass of an object may vary depending on the observer’s inertial frame, where the final mass will vary according to the speed of the system.

[35] Branch of theoretical physics that replaces classical mechanics and classical electromagnetsim only at atomic and subatomic levels providing more accurate and precise descriptions for many phenomena.  Along with general relativity, quantum mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.

[36] Application of the probability theory, which includes mathematical tools dealing with large populations, in mechanics, concerning with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force.

[37] Branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics.

[38] Also known, as EFE or Einstein’s equations are a set of ten equations in Einstein’s theory of general relativity in which the force of gravitation is described as a curved spacetime caused by matter and energy.

[39] Equation which involves the derivative of an unknown function represented by a dependent variable.

[40] Ancient scriptures or revelation (Shruti) of the Hindu teachings. They manifest the Divine Word in human speech.  They reflect into human language the language of the Gods, the Divine powers that have created us and which rule over us.

[41]"It may be found in all life forms, since an amoeba until a man –– since the more elementary vegetal life, until the most developed animal life.   Prajñā penetrates everything... Prajñā is the name with that we assign a universal principle, which is the essence of all movements, force or energy, revealing as gravitation, electricity, planetary revolution or any form of life, of the most raised to most inferior.  The soul can be called the force and the energy in all its manifestations, or the principle that, operating in certain way, produces the form of activity that follows life.  This principle of life exists in all forms of matter, but it is not matter.  It is in air, but none of its chemical elements are present in air. It is in the food that we eat; however is not the chemical substances that combined make up water.  It is the "energy" that exists in all the things –– acting simply as a conductor.

[42] The most recent martial art, known as the Art of Peace, invented by the Japanese Morihei Ueshiba (O’Sensei) in the 1940.  Aikido, may be divided into three syllable. Translating each syllable: Al means harmony, union, and in Japanese it may also mean love.  Ki means vital energy, absolute energy, life.  Do, means a way of life, known as Tao in China.

[43] Stands for milli-Kelvin.